Ancient Salamis was on the southeast coast of the island of Cyprus. It was one of the two largest cities at the time of the New Testament, along with Paphos on the opposite side.
The city of Salamis was likely named after the city of Salamis in Greece. It was founded some time after the Trojan War in the 12th century BC, and developed as a primary commercial and cultural hub in the Mediterranean Sea.
During the Roman period, Salamis was a large and impressive city with a major harbor. Its public buildings included an elaborate gymnasium, bathhouse complex, stadium, aqueduct, agora (market), temple to Zeus, and a massive theater capable of holding about 15,000 people.
During the 3rd century BC, Judeans were encouraged to settle in Salamis, with synagogues showing up here as early as the 2nd century BC. The Book of Acts, Chapter 13, tells us that it was here at Salamis where Paul, Barnabas, and John Mark first landed and started proclaiming the Gospel in the synagogues.